The minimum acceptable compiler is a Java 1.3 compiler. Go to Javasoft for a free Java 1.3 download, including a nice IDE.
Yes, provided there is space.
PDF files can be viewed and printed using Acrobat Reader, which is a free program available from Adobe.
Go to the AUL. From home, if you have a printer that understands postscript, then in an MS-DOS prompt, try
copy /b file.ps prn